Essential Gynaecological Health Screening Tests for Women

Red Underline

Gynaecological Screenings

Red Underline


What is Colposcopy?

Colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure done in the doctor’s clinic or hospital. The gynaecologist can use the colposcope to examine and take a closer look at the cervix and vagina. During the procedure, a special magnifying instrument called a colposcope is used to provide a detailed view of the tissues in the cervical area.

When is Colposcopy required?

It is advisable to have a colposcopy done in these circumstances:

> When cervical screening shows abnormal results caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV), a colposcopy may be advised to assess the cervix for any abnormalities that could indicate an increased risk of cervical cancer.

> When there are unexplained symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding, unusual discharge, or pelvic pain, a colposcopy may be conducted to investigate the underlying cause.

> To monitor pre-existing conditions for women with a history of cervical abnormalities or conditions like cervical dysplasia or genital warts.

Painful Periods

Menstrual-related Conditions

Painful Periods

Menstrual disorders can occur just before and during menstruation. These symptoms can include heavy bleeding, missed periods, and severe mood swings that may be difficult to manage.

Types of Menstrual-relate Conditions

> Premenstrual Syndrome – PMS occurs before the period and can lead to symptoms such as bloating, irritability, backaches, headaches, and breast soreness.

> Heavy Periods (Menorrhagia) – In this condition, women experience excessive bleeding during menstruation. Additionally, the period may last longer than the typical five to seven days. This condition is often attributed to hormonal imbalances, particularly fluctuations in progesterone and estrogen levels. These hormonal changes can lead to the excessive shedding of the uterine lining, resulting in heavy and prolonged periods.

> Absent Periods (Amenorrhea) – Amenorrhea refers to the absence of periods during a women’s reproductive years. Primary Amenorrhea occurs when a woman has not started her menstrual periods by the age of 16, while Secondary Amenorrhea happens when a woman misses more than 3 consecutive periods.

> Painful Periods (Dysmenorrhea) – This condition causes extreme pain during periods, and could be caused by fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease or abnormal tissue growth outside of the uterus (Endometriosis).

Pap Smear & Pelvic Exam

Pap Smear
What is a Pap Smear?

A pap smear is a screening method used to detect
cervical cancer. It helps to identify any precancerous
or cancerous cells in the cervix.

When is a Pap Smear required?

> When a woman is between 25 to 29 years old.

> Sexually active women who have never been screened for cervical cancer should undergo screening regardless of their age.

About 10% to 30% cervical cancer cases are caused by HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) sub-types which vaccines do not protect against. (Source: Healthhub SG)

What is a Pelvic Exam?

During a pelvic examination, which is also referred to as a vaginal examination, the doctor will insert 1 to 2 fingers into the vagina to examine the cervix, ovaries, uterus, and pelvis for any irregularities. They may also assess the strength of the patient’s pelvic floor muscles based on specific symptoms.

Pap Smear
Pelvic Pain

Pelvic Pains

Pelvic Pain
What are Pelvic Pains?

Pelvic pains refer to pain or discomfort experienced in the lower part of the abdomen and pelvic region. Pelvic pain may originate from the digestive, reproductive, or urinary systems, as well as from certain muscles or ligaments in the pelvic area.

Pelvic pain might also be caused by problems associated with the female reproductive system. These may include Adenomyosis, Endometriosis, Ovarian Cysts or Cancer, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and Uterine Fibroids.